How Turing implements AbstractMCMC
Prerequisite: Interface guide.
Introduction
Consider the following Turing, code block:
using Turing
@model function gdemo(x, y)
s² ~ InverseGamma(2, 3)
m ~ Normal(0, sqrt(s²))
x ~ Normal(m, sqrt(s²))
return y ~ Normal(m, sqrt(s²))
end
mod = gdemo(1.5, 2)
alg = IS()
n_samples = 1000
chn = sample(mod, alg, n_samples)
Chains MCMC chain (1000×3×1 Array{Float64, 3}):
Log evidence = 3.7397495966365044
Iterations = 1:1:1000
Number of chains = 1
Samples per chain = 1000
Wall duration = 0.44 seconds
Compute duration = 0.44 seconds
parameters = s², m
internals = lp
Summary Statistics
parameters mean std mcse ess_bulk ess_tail rhat
e ⋯
Symbol Float64 Float64 Float64 Float64 Float64 Float64
⋯
s² 2.9995 4.8579 0.1574 820.8819 940.1967 0.9997
⋯
m 0.0812 1.6439 0.0527 958.2262 878.7434 0.9990
⋯
1 column om
itted
Quantiles
parameters 2.5% 25.0% 50.0% 75.0% 97.5%
Symbol Float64 Float64 Float64 Float64 Float64
s² 0.5324 1.0783 1.8057 3.0920 11.5976
m 2.9889 0.8875 0.0694 0.9125 3.3892
The function sample
is part of the AbstractMCMC interface. As explained in the interface guide, building a a sampling method that can be used by sample
consists in overloading the structs and functions in AbstractMCMC
. The interface guide also gives a standalone example of their implementation, AdvancedMH.jl
.
Turing sampling methods (most of which are written here) also implement AbstractMCMC
. Turing defines a particular architecture for AbstractMCMC
implementations, that enables working with models defined by the @model
macro, and uses DynamicPPL as a backend. The goal of this page is to describe this architecture, and how you would go about implementing your own sampling method in Turing, using Importance Sampling as an example. I don't go into all the details: for instance, I don't address selectors or parallelism.
First, we explain how Importance Sampling works in the abstract. Consider the model defined in the first code block. Mathematically, it can be written:
>\begin{align*}
s &\sim \text{InverseGamma}(2, 3), \\\\
m &\sim \text{Normal}(0, \sqrt{s}), \\\\
x &\sim \text{Normal}(m, \sqrt{s}), \\\\
y &\sim \text{Normal}(m, \sqrt{s}).
\end{align*}
The latent variables are s
and m
, the observed variables are x
and y
. The model joint distribution p(s,m,x,y)
decomposes into the prior p(s,m)
and the likelihood p(x,y \mid s,m).
Since x = 1.5
and y = 2
are observed, the goal is to infer the posterior distribution p(s,m \mid x,y).
Importance Sampling produces independent samples (s_i, m_i)
from the prior distribution. It also outputs unnormalized weights
>w_i = \frac {p(x,y,s_i,m_i)} {p(s_i, m_i)} = p(x,y \mid s_i, m_i)
such that the empirical distribution
>\frac{1}{N} \sum_{i =1}^N \frac {w_i} {\sum_{j=1}^N w_j} \delta_{(s_i, m_i)}
is a good approximation of the posterior.
1. Define a Sampler
Recall the last line of the above code block:
chn = sample(mod, alg, n_samples)
Chains MCMC chain (1000×3×1 Array{Float64, 3}):
Log evidence = 3.727071485809714
Iterations = 1:1:1000
Number of chains = 1
Samples per chain = 1000
Wall duration = 0.12 seconds
Compute duration = 0.12 seconds
parameters = s², m
internals = lp
Summary Statistics
parameters mean std mcse ess_bulk ess_tail rhat
⋯
Symbol Float64 Float64 Float64 Float64 Float64 Float64
⋯
s² 2.8900 4.0938 0.1277 956.8537 994.9245 1.0003
⋯
m 0.0198 1.6533 0.0526 1005.1643 909.1658 1.0004
⋯
1 column om
itted
Quantiles
parameters 2.5% 25.0% 50.0% 75.0% 97.5%
Symbol Float64 Float64 Float64 Float64 Float64
s² 0.5861 1.0888 1.7161 3.0260 12.6666
m 3.0095 0.9205 0.0287 0.9095 3.3850
Here sample
takes as arguments a model mod
, an algorithm alg
, and a number of samples n_samples
, and returns an instance chn
of Chains
which can be analysed using the functions in MCMCChains
.
Models
To define a model, you declare a joint distribution on variables in the @model
macro, and specify which variables are observed and which should be inferred, as well as the value of the observed variables. Thus, when implementing Importance Sampling,
mod = gdemo(1.5, 2)
DynamicPPL.Model{typeof(Main.var"##WeaveSandBox#315".gdemo), (:x, :y), (),
(), Tuple{Float64, Int64}, Tuple{}, DynamicPPL.DefaultContext}(Main.var"##W
eaveSandBox#315".gdemo, (x = 1.5, y = 2), NamedTuple(), DynamicPPL.DefaultC
ontext())
creates an instance mod
of the struct Model
, which corresponds to the observations of a value of 1.5
for x
, and a value of 2
for y
.
This is all handled by DynamicPPL, more specifically here. I will return to how models are used to inform sampling algorithms below.
Algorithms
An algorithm is just a sampling method: in Turing, it is a subtype of the abstract type InferenceAlgorithm
. Defining an algorithm may require specifying a few highlevel parameters. For example, "Hamiltonian MonteCarlo" may be too vague, but "Hamiltonian Monte Carlo with 10 leapfrog steps per proposal and a stepsize of 0.01" is an algorithm. "MetropolisHastings" may be too vague, but "MetropolisHastings with proposal distribution p
" is an algorithm.
Thus
stepsize = 0.01
L = 10
alg = HMC(stepsize, L)
Turing.Inference.HMC{Turing.Essential.ForwardDiffAD{0}, (), AdvancedHMC.Uni
tEuclideanMetric}(0.01, 10)
defines a Hamiltonian MonteCarlo algorithm, an instance of HMC
, which is a subtype of InferenceAlgorithm
.
In the case of Importance Sampling, there is no need to specify additional parameters:
alg = IS()
Turing.Inference.IS{()}()
defines an Importance Sampling algorithm, an instance of IS
which is a subtype of InferenceAlgorithm
.
When creating your own Turing sampling method, you must therefore build a subtype of InferenceAlgorithm
corresponding to your method.
Samplers
Samplers are not the same as algorithms. An algorithm is a generic sampling method, a sampler is an object that stores information about how algorithm and model interact during sampling, and is modified as sampling progresses. The Sampler
struct is defined in DynamicPPL.
Turing implements AbstractMCMC
's AbstractSampler
with the Sampler
struct defined in DynamicPPL
. The most important attributes of an instance spl
of Sampler
are:
spl.alg
: the sampling method used, an instance of a subtype ofInferenceAlgorithm
spl.state
: information about the sampling process, see below
When you call sample(mod, alg, n_samples)
, Turing first uses model
and alg
to build an instance spl
of Sampler
, then calls the native AbstractMCMC
function sample(mod, spl, n_samples)
.
When you define your own Turing sampling method, you must therefore build:
 a sampler constructor that uses a model and an algorithm to initialize an instance of
Sampler
. For Importance Sampling:
function Sampler(alg::IS, model::Model, s::Selector)
info = Dict{Symbol,Any}()
state = ISState(model)
return Sampler(alg, info, s, state)
end
 a state struct implementing
AbstractSamplerState
corresponding to your method: we cover this in the following paragraph.
States
The vi
field contains all the important information about sampling: first and foremost, the values of all the samples, but also the distributions from which they are sampled, the names of model parameters, and other metadata. As we will see below, many important steps during sampling correspond to queries or updates to spl.state.vi
.
By default, you can use SamplerState
, a concrete type defined in inference/Inference.jl
, which extends AbstractSamplerState
and has no field except for vi
:
mutable struct SamplerState{VIType<:VarInfo} <: AbstractSamplerState
vi::VIType
end
When doing Importance Sampling, we care not only about the values of the samples but also their weights. We will see below that the weight of each sample is also added to spl.state.vi
. Moreover, the average
>\frac 1 N \sum_{j=1}^N w_i = \frac 1 N \sum_{j=1}^N p(x,y \mid s_i, m_i)
of the sample weights is a particularly important quantity:
 it is used to normalize the empirical approximation of the posterior distribution
 its logarithm is the importance sampling estimate of the log evidence
\log p(x, y)
To avoid having to compute it over and over again, is.jl
defines an ISspecific concrete type ISState
for sampler states, with an additional field final_logevidence
containing
>\log \frac 1 N \sum_{j=1}^N w_i.
mutable struct ISState{V<:VarInfo,F<:AbstractFloat} <: AbstractSamplerState
vi::V
final_logevidence::F
end
# additional constructor
ISState(model::Model) = ISState(VarInfo(model), 0.0)
The following diagram summarizes the hierarchy presented above.
2. Overload the functions used inside mcmcsample
A lot of the things here are methodspecific. However Turing also has some functions that make it easier for you to implement these functions, for examples .
Transitions
AbstractMCMC
stores information corresponding to each individual sample in objects called transition
, but does not specify what the structure of these objects could be. You could decide to implement a type MyTransition
for transitions corresponding to the specifics of your methods. However, there are many situations in which the only information you need for each sample is:
 its value:
\theta
 log of the joint probability of the observed data and this sample:
lp
Inference.jl
defines a struct Transition
, which corresponds to this default situation
struct Transition{T,F<:AbstractFloat}
θ::T
lp::F
end
It also contains a constructor that builds an instance of Transition
from an instance spl
of Sampler
: \theta
is spl.state.vi
converted to a namedtuple
, and lp
is getlogp(spl.state.vi)
. is.jl
uses this default constructor at the end of the step!
function here.
How sample
works
A crude summary, which ignores things like parallelism, is the following:
sample
calls mcmcsample
, which calls
sample_init!
to set things upstep!
repeatedly to produce multiple new transitionssample_end!
to perform operations once all samples have been obtainedbundle_samples
to convert a vector of transitions into a more palatable type, for instance aChain
.
You can of course implement all of these functions, but AbstractMCMC
as well as Turing also provide default implementations for simple cases. For instance, importance sampling uses the default implementations of sample_init!
and bundle_samples
, which is why you don't see code for them inside is.jl
.
3. Overload assume and observe
The functions mentioned above, such as sample_init!
, step!
, etc., must of course use information about the model in order to generate samples! In particular, these functions may need samples from distributions defined in the model, or to evaluate the density of these distributions at some values of the corresponding parameters or observations.
For an example of the former, consider Importance Sampling as defined in is.jl
. This implementation of Importance Sampling uses the model prior distribution as a proposal distribution, and therefore requires samples from the prior distribution of the model. Another example is Approximate Bayesian Computation, which requires multiple samples from the model prior and likelihood distributions in order to generate a single sample.
An example of the latter is the MetropolisHastings algorithm. At every step of sampling from a target posterior
>p(\theta \mid x_{\text{obs}}),
in order to compute the acceptance ratio, you need to evaluate the model joint density
>p\left(\theta_{\text{prop}}, x_{\text{obs}}\right)
with \theta_{\text{prop}}
a sample from the proposal and x_{\text{obs}}
the observed data.
This begs the question: how can these functions access model information during sampling? Recall that the model is stored as an instance m
of Model
. One of the attributes of m
is the model evaluation function m.f
, which is built by compiling the @model
macro. Executing f
runs the tilde statements of the model in order, and adds model information to the sampler (the instance of Sampler
that stores information about the ongoing sampling process) at each step (see here for more information about how the @model
macro is compiled). The DynamicPPL functions assume
and observe
determine what kind of information to add to the sampler for every tilde statement.
Consider an instance m
of Model
and a sampler spl
, with associated VarInfo
vi = spl.state.vi
. At some point during the sampling process, an AbstractMCMC function such as step!
calls m(vi, ...)
, which calls the model evaluation function m.f(vi, ...)
.

for every tilde statement in the
@model
macro,m.f(vi, ...)
returns modelrelated information (samples, value of the model density, etc.), and adds it tovi
. How does it do that? recall that the code for
m.f(vi, ...)
is automatically generated by compilation of the@model
macro  for every tilde statement in the
@model
declaration, this code contains a call toassume(vi, ...)
if the variable on the LHS of the tilde is a model parameter to infer, andobserve(vi, ...)
if the variable on the LHS of the tilde is an observation  in the file corresponding to your sampling method (ie in
Turing.jl/src/inference/<your_method>.jl
), you have overloadedassume
andobserve
, so that they can modifyvi
to include the information and samples that you care about!  at a minimum,
assume
andobserve
return the log densitylp
of the sample or observation. the model evaluation function then immediately callsacclogp!!(vi, lp)
, which addslp
to the value of the log joint density stored invi
.
 recall that the code for
Here's what assume
looks like for Importance Sampling:
function DynamicPPL.assume(rng, spl::Sampler{<:IS}, dist::Distribution, vn::VarName, vi)
r = rand(rng, dist)
push!(vi, vn, r, dist, spl)
return r, 0
end
The function first generates a sample r
from the distribution dist
(the right hand side of the tilde statement). It then adds r
to vi
, and returns r
and 0.
The observe
function is even simpler:
function DynamicPPL.observe(spl::Sampler{<:IS}, dist::Distribution, value, vi)
return logpdf(dist, value)
end
It simply returns the density (in the discrete case, the probability) of the observed value under the distribution dist
.
4. Summary: Importance Sampling step by step
We focus on the AbstractMCMC functions that are overridden in is.jl
and executed inside mcmcsample
: step!
, which is called n_samples
times, and sample_end!
, which is executed once after those n_samples
iterations.

During the
i
th iteration,step!
does 3 things:
empty!!(spl.state.vi)
: remove information about the previous sample from the sampler'sVarInfo

model(rng, spl.state.vi, spl)
: call the model evaluation function calls to
assume
add the samples from the priors_i
andm_i
tospl.state.vi
 calls to both
assume
orobserve
are followed by the lineacclogp!!(vi, lp)
, wherelp
is an output ofassume
andobserve
lp
is set to 0 afterassume
, and to the value of the density at the observation afterobserve
 when all the tilde statements have been covered,
spl.state.vi.logp[]
is the sum of thelp
, i.e., the likelihood\log p(x, y \mid s_i, m_i) = \log p(x \mid s_i, m_i) + \log p(y \mid s_i, m_i)
of the observations given the latent variable sampless_i
andm_i
.
 calls to

return Transition(spl)
: build a transition from the sampler, and return that transition the transition's
vi
field is simplyspl.state.vi
 the
lp
field contains the likelihoodspl.state.vi.logp[]
 the transition's


When the,
n_samples
iterations are completed,sample_end!
fills thefinal_logevidence
field ofspl.state
 it simply takes the logarithm of the average of the sample weights, using the log weights for numerical stability